Indigenous/Traditional Knowledge & Intellectual Property -- Further Resources

Indigenous/Traditional Knowledge & Intellectual Property

V.  Further Resources

The following resources are not comprehensive but represent a sampling of the literature that has been produced between 2003–2009.

For a comprehensive list of political rights and advocacy organizations for indigenous peoples see

Aching, R. “Intellectual property rights and the development of an herbal medicine industry,” in Y. N. Clement and C. E. Seaforth (eds.). Advancing Caribbean Herbs in the 21st Century: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Herbal Medicine in the Caribbean. 2003. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: University of the West Indies.

Adelman, M. J., F. W. Grosheide and J. J. Brinkhof (eds.). Intellectual Property Law 2004: Articles on Crossing Borders Between Traditional and Actual. 2005. Antwerp: Intersentia.

Agrawal, Arun. “The Politics of Indigenous Knowledge.” Australian Academic & Research Libraries (2005) 36(2): 71–82. [Read it online]

Anderson, Jane. Law, Knowledge, Culture: The Production of Indigenous Knowledge in Intellectual Property Law. 2009. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

———. “The making of indigenous knowledge in intellectual property law in Australia.” International Journal of Cultural Property (2005) 12(3): 347–73. [Read it online]

———. “The politics of indigenous knowledge: Australia’s proposed Communal Moral Rights Bill.” University of New South Wales Law Journal (2004) 27(3): 585–604. [Read it online]

Antons, Christoph. Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions and Intellectual Property in the Asia-Pacific Region. 2009. Alphen Aan Den Rijn: Kluwer Law International; Frederick, MD: Aspen Publishers.

———. “Sui generis protection for plant varieties and traditional agricultural knowledge: The example of India.” European Intellectual Property Review (2007) 29(12): 480–85.

Apte, T. A Simple Guide to Inellectual Property Rights, Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge. 2006. Pune, India; New Delhi: Kalpavriksh.

Arezzo, E. “Struggling around the ‘natural’ divide: The protection of tangible and intangible indigenous property.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal (2007) 25(1): 367–415. [Read it online]

Arewa, O.B. “TRIPS and traditional knowledge: Local communities, local knowledge, and global intellectual property frameworks.” (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) (Symposium: The First Ten Years of the TRIPS Agreement) Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review (2006) 10(2): 155–80. [Read it online]

Armour, K., and P. Harrison. “Poisons and politics – Indigenous rights and IP protection.” World Patent Information (2007) 29(3): 255–61.

Austin, G. W. “Re-treating intellectual property? The WAI 262 Proceeding and the heuristics of intellectual property law” (Symposium: Traditional Knowledge, Intellectual Property, and Indigenous Culture, Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand) Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 333–64.

Barron, N., and E. Couzens. “Intellectual property rights and plant variety protection in South Africa: An international perspective.” Journal of Environmental Law (2004) 16(1): 19–47.

Barsh, R. L. “Pharmacogenomics and indigenous peoples: Real issues and actors.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 365–92.

Bastida-Munoz, M. C., et. al. “Traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights: Beyond TRIPS agreements and intellectual property chapters of FTAs.” Michigan State Journal of International Law (2006) 14(2/3): 259–89.

Bateman, Chris. “Stealing SA [South Africa] secrets.” CME: Your SA Journal of CPD (2007) 25(3): 140–42.

Bates, Katie. “A penny for your thoughts: Private and collective contracting for traditional medicinal knowledge modeled on bioprospecting contracts in Costa Rica.” Georgia Law Review (2007) 41(3): 961–1011.

Bellmann, Christopher, Graham Dutfield, and Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz (eds.). Trading in Knowledge: Development Perspectives on TRIPS, Trade, and Sustainability. 2003. London; Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications. Specifically in Part II, the section titled “IPRs and the protection of traditional knowledge.”

Benneworth, Shirley. “Community resources: Intellectual property, international trade and protection of traditional knowledge.” (Book Review) Law Society Journal (2005) 43(10): 90(2).

Biber-Klemm, Susette, and Thomas Cottier (eds.); Danuta Szymura Berglas (assoc. ed.). Rights to Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Basic Issues and Perspectives. 2006. Oxfordshire, UK; Cambridge, MA: CABI Pub.

Bode, Maarten. “Taking traditional knowledge to the market: The commoditization of Indian medicine.” Anthropology & Medicine (2006) 13(3): 225–36.

Bodeker, Gerard. “Traditional medical knowledge, intellectual property rights & benefit sharing.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 785–814.

Boyle, James, and Lawrence Lessig (special eds.). “Cultural environmentalism @ 10.” Law & Contemporary Problems (2007) 70(2): 1–232. [Read it online]

Bratspies, R. M. “The new discovery doctrine: Some thoughts on property rights and traditional knowledge.” American Indian Law Review (2006/2007) 31(2): 315–40.

Brush, Stephen B. “Farmers’ rights and protection of traditional agricultural knowledge.” World Development (2007) 35(9): 1499–1514.

———. “Protecting traditional agricultural knowledge.” Washington University Journal of Law and Policy (2005) 17: 59–109. [Read it online]

Buenz, Eric J., et al. “Techniques: Bioprospecting historical herbal texts by hunting for new leads in old tomes.” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (2004) 25(9): 494–98.

Carpenter, Megan M. “Intellectual property law and indigenous peoples: Adapting copyright law to the needs of a global community.” Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal (2004) 7: 51–78. [Read it online]

Cellini, Roberto, and Guido Cozzi (eds.). Intellectual Property, Competition and Growth. 2007. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Specifically the chapter: “Different approaches to the protection of individual and collective intellectual property rights. The case of traditional knowledge.” Stefania Lionetti.

Chen, Jim. “Across the apocalypse on horseback: Imperfect legal responses to biodiversity loss.” (Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Legal Protection of Traditional Knowledge) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy (2005) 17: 12–35. [Read it online]

Clark, Emily. “Intangibles, appropriation, and intellectual property law: The problem(s) with copyright for Native American oral traditions.” Studies in Law, Politics, and Society (2005) 38: 173–90.

Cloatre, Emilie. “From international ethics to European Union policy: A case study on biopiracy in the EU’s biotechnology directive.” Law & Policy (2006) 28(3): 345–67. [Read it online]

Cohen, J. E. “Network stories.” Law & Contemporary Problems (2007) 70(2): 91–95. [Read it online]

Conforto, David. “Traditional and modern-day biopiracy: Redefining the biopiracy debate.” Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation (2004) 19(2): 357–396. [Read it online]

Coombe, R. J. “Protecting traditional environmental knowledge and new social movements in the Americas: Intellectual property, human right, or claims to an alternative form of sustainable development?” Florida Journal of International Law (2005) 17(1): 115–35.

Cooper, Alix. Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. 2007. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cordonier Segger, Marie-Claire, and Maria Leichner Reynal (eds.). Beyond the Barricades:The Americas Trade and Sustainable Development Agenda. 2005. Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Specifically: “Biodiversity, indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights.” Mindahi Bastida Munoz and Alvaro Solo Holguin.

Correa, Carlos Maria. Update on International Developments Relating to the Intellectual Property Protection of Traditional Knowledge Including Traditional Medicine. (T.R.A.D.E. Working Papers #18.) 2004. Geneva, Switzerland: South Centre. [Read it online]

Cottier, Thomas, and Marion Panizzon. “Legal perspectives on traditional knowledge: The case for intellectual property protection.” Journal of International Economic Law (2004) 7(2): 371–400.

Cullet, Philippe. “Human rights and intellectual property protection in the TRIPS era.” Human Rights Quarterly (2007) 29(2): 403–430.

D’Altroy, Terence N. “Reinventing unchanged Andean traditions.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2004) 12(1): 83–90.

Davis, Michael H. “Some realism about indigenism.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 815–30.

Daya, Y., and N. Vink. “Protecting traditional ethno-botanical knowledge in South Africa through the intellectual property regime.” Agrekon (2006) 45(3): 319–38.

de Carvalho, N. P. “From the shaman’s hut to the patent office: In search of a TRIPS-consistent requirement to disclose the origin of genetic resources and prior informed consent.” Washington University Journal of Law and Policy (2005) 17: 111–86. [Read it online]

Desai, Pranav N. “Challenges of agro-biotechnologies, intellectual property rights and globalisation: Role of academic institutions in achieving the millennium development goals.” (Author abstract) World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (2005) 2(1): 60–71.

Dolder, Fritz. “Traditional knowledge and patenting: The experience of the neemfungicide and the hoodia cases.” (Analysis of European Patent Law) Biotechnology Law Report (2007) 26(6): 583–90.

Drahos, Peter. “Intellectual property and pharmaceutical markets: A nodal governance approach.” (Symposium: SARS, Public Health, and Global Governance) Temple Law Review (2004) 77(2): 401–24.

Dumoulin, David. “Local knowledge in the hands of transnational NGO networks: A Mexican viewpoint.” (NGOs in the Governance of Biodiversity) International Social Science Journal (2003) 178: 593–606. [Read it online]

Dutfield, Graham. Intellectual Property, Biogenetic Resources, and Traditional Knowledge. 2004. London; Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Feris, Loretta. “Protecting traditional knowledge in Africa: Considering African approaches.” African Human Rights Law Journal (2004) 4(2): 242–55. [Read it online]

Finger, J. Michael, and Philip Schuler. Poor People’s Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries. 2004. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.

Fischer, Edward F., and Avery Dickens. “Development and hegemony: Cultural property and cultural propriety in the Maya region.” (Symposium: The New American Hegemony?) Connecticut Journal of International Law (2004) 19(2): 315–27.

Fletcher, M. L. M. “Theoretical restrictions on the sharing of indigenous biological knowledge: Implications for freedom of speech in tribal law.” Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy (2005) 14(3): 525–60. [Read it online]

Folkins, Pollyanna E. “Has the lab coat become the modern day eye patch? Thwarting biopiracy of indigenous resources by modifying international patenting system.” Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems (2003) 13(1): 339–67.

Francioni, Francesco, and Martin Scheinin. Cultural Human Rights. 2008. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Specifically the chapter: “Indigenous peoples’ cultural rights and the controversy over commercial use of their traditional knowledge.” Federico Lenzerini.

Francioni, Francesco, and Tullio Scovazzi (eds.). Biotechnology and International Law. 2006. Oxford; Portland, OR: Hart Pub. Specifically the chapter: “Indigenous peoples’ rights, biogenetic resources and traditional knowledge: The case of the Satér Mawé people.” M. Fraboni and F. Lenzerini.

Gamboa, J. “Current developments–South America.” Intellectual Property Forum (2005) 62: 92–93.

Gehring, Markus W., and Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger (eds.). Sustainable Development in World Trade Law. 2005. The Hague; Frederick, MD: Kluwer Law International.

Geismar, Haidy. “Copyright in context: Carvings, carvers, and commodities in Vanuatu.” American Ethnologist (2005) 32(3): 437–59.

Gervais, Daniel J. (ed.). Intellectual Property, Trade and Development: Strategies to Optimize Economic Development in a TRIPS-plus Era. 2007. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Specifically the chapter: “A networked responsive regulatory approach to protecting traditional knowledge.” Peter Drahos.

Gervais, Daniel J. “Spiritual but not intellectual? The protection of sacred intangible traditional knowledge.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 467–95.

———. “Traditional knowledge & intellectual property: A TRIPS-compatible approach.” Michigan State Law Review 2005(1): 137–66. [Read it online]

Ghosh, Shubha. “The fable of the commons: Exclusivity and the construction of intellectual property markets.” (Symposium: Intellectual Property and Social Justice) U.C. Davis Law Review (2007) 40(3): 855–90. [Read it online]

———. “Reflections on the traditional knowledge debate.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 497–510.

———. “The traditional terms of the traditional knowledge debate.” Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business (2003) 23(3): 589–631.

Gibson, Johanna. “Audiences in tradition: Traditional knowledge and the public domain,” in Waelde, Charlotte, and Hector MacQueen (eds.). Intellectual Property: The Many Faces of the Public Domain. 2007. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

———. Community Resources: Intellectual Property, International Trade and Protection of Traditional Knowledge. 2005. Aldershot, UK; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

———. “Intellectual property systems, traditional knowledge and the legal authority of community.” European Intellectual Property Review (2004) E18.4 26: 280–90.

Girsberger, M. “Transparency measures under patent law regarding genetic resources and traditional knowledge: Disclosure of source and evidence of prior informed consent and benefit sharing.” Journal of World Intellectual Property (2004) 7(4): 451–89.

Gollin, Michael A. “Answering the call: Public interest intellectual property advisors.” (Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Legal Protection of Traditional Knowledge) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy (2005) 17: 187–223. [Read it online]

Gopalakrishnan, N. S. “TRIPs and protection of traditional knowledge of genetic resources: New challenges to the patent system.” European Intellectual Property Review (2005) 27(1): 11–18.

Graham, Lorie, and Stephen McJohn. “Indigenous peoples and intellectual property.” (Contemporary and Comparative Perspectives on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy (2005) 19: 313–37. [Read it online]

Greene, Shane. “Indigenous people incorporated? Culture as politics, culture as property in pharmaceutical bioprospecting.” Current Anthropology (2004) 45(2): 211–38.

Gupta, Anil K. WIPO-UNEP Study on the Role of Intellectual Property Rights in the Sharing of Benefits Arising from the Use of Biological Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge. 2004. Geneva, Switzerland: World Intellectual Property Organization.

Halbert, Debora Jean. Resisting Intellectual Property. 2005. London; New York: Routledge. Specifically the chapter: “Traditional knowledge and intellectual property: Seeking alternatives.”

Hamilton, Neil D. “Forced feeding: New legal issues in the biotechnology policy debate.” (Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Legal Protection of Traditional Knowledge) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy (2005) 17: 37–57. [Read it online]

Hansen, Stephen A., and Justin W VanFleet. Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Handbook on Issues and Options for Traditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting Their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity. 2003. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Harding, Sarah. “Defining traditional knowledge – Lessons from cultural property.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 511–18.

Haugen, H. M. “Traditional knowledge and human rights.” Journal of World Intellectual Property (2005) 8(5): 663–77.

Hawthorne, Susan. “Land, bodies, and knowledge: Biocolonialism of plants, indigenous peoples, women, and people with disabilities.” Signs (2007) 32(2): 314–322.

Hayden, Cori. “Bioprospecting: The ‘promise’ and threat of the market.” NACLA Report on the Americas (2006) 39(5): 26(7).

Heald, Paul J. “The rhetoric of biopiracy.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 519–46.

Heath, Christopher, and Anselm Kamperman Sanders (eds.). New Frontiers of Intellectual Property Law: IP and Cultural Heritage, Geographical Indicators, Enforcement, Overprotection. 2005. Oxford; Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.

Helfer, Laurence R. “Toward a human rights framework for intellectual property.” (Symposium: Intellectual Property and Social Justice) U.C. Davis Law Review (2007) 40(3): 971–1020. [Read it online]

Ho, Cynthia M. “Biopiracy and beyond: A consideration of socio-cultural conflicts with global patent policies.” University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform (2006) 39(3): 433–542.

Hodges, T. J., and Anne Daniel. “Promises and pitfalls: First steps on the road to the international ABS regime.” Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (2005) 14(2): 148–60.

Hoffman, Barbara. Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy, and Practice. 2006. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

“Current developments–WIPO.” Intellectual Property Forum (2006) 65: 75–6.

Janke, Terri. “Managing indigenous knowledge and indigenous cultural and intellectual property.” Australian Academic & Research Libraries (2005) 36(2): 95–107.

Jayaraman, K.S. “Break with tradition.” Nature (July 27, 2006) 442: 342–43.

Kansa, E.C. “Protecting traditional knowledge and expanding access to scientific data: Juxtaposing intellectual property agendas via a ‘some rights reserved’ model.” International Journal of Cultural Property (2005) 12(3): 285–314.

Kapp, Clare. “UN steps up action on traditional knowledge.” (Medicine And Health Policy) The Lancet (October 11, 2003) 362(9391): 1206.

Kariyawasam, Kanchana. “Access to biological resources and benefit-sharing: Exploring a regional mechanism to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in SAARC countries.” (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) European Intellectual Property Review (2007) 29(8): 325–35.

Kihwelo, P.F. “Indigenous knowledge: What is it? How and why do we protect it?” Journal of World Intellectual Property (2005) 8(3): 345–59.

Krackhardt, O. “Beyond the neem tree conflict: Questions of corporate behaviour in a globalised world.” New Zealand Universities Law Review (2005) 21(3): 347–84.

Kremers, Nancy. “Speaking with a forked tongue in the global debate on traditional knowledge and genetic resources: Are U.S. intellectual property law and policy really aimed at meaningful protection for native American cultures.” Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal (2004) 15(1): 1–146.

Kuruk, P. “Bridging the gap between traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights: Is reciprocity an answer?” Journal of World Intellectual Property (2004) 7(3): 429–46.

———. “The role of customary law under sui generis frameworks of intellectual property rights in traditional and indigenous knowledge.” Indiana International & Comparative Law Review (2007) 17(1): 67–118.

———. “Goading a reluctant dinosaur: Mutual recognition agreements as a policy response to the misappropriation of foreign traditional knowledge in the United States.” Pepperdine Law Review (2007) 34(3): 629–713.

Lanye, Zhu. “Protection of traditional knowledge: Protecting poor countries’ intellectual property?” in Torremans, Paul, Shan Hailing and Johan Erauw (eds.). Intellectual Property and TRIPS Compliance in China: Chinese and European Perspectives. 2007. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Liedwein, A. “Protection of traditional knowledge associated with biological and genetic resources: General legal issues and measure already taken by the European Union and its member states in the field of agriculture and food production.” Journal of World Intellectual Property (2006) 9(3): 251–75.

Lindsay, R. H. “Responsibility with accountability: The birth of a strategy to protect Kanaka Maoli traditional knowledge.” Howard Law Journal (2005) 48(2): 763–85.

Li, Xuan. “Novelty and inventive step: Obstacles to traditional knowledge protection under patent regimes; a case study in China.” European Intellectual Property Review (2007) 29(4): 134–39.

Liu, Y. “Justification of subject-matter for legal protection of traditional knowledge.” European Intellectual Property Review (2007) 29(11): 456–60.

Mander, Jerry, and Victoria Tauli-Corpuz (eds.). Paradigm Wars: Indigenous Peoples’ Resistance to Globalization. 2006. San Francisco; Los Angeles, CA: Sierra Club Books.

Maragia, Bosire. “The indigenous sustainability paradox and the quest for sustainability in post-colonial societies: Is indigenous knowledge all that is needed?” Georgetown International Environmental Law Review (2006) 18(2): 197–247.

Marinova, Dora, and Margaret Raven. “Indigenous knowledge and intellectual property: A sustainability agenda.” Journal of Economic Surveys (2006) 20(4): 587–605.

Maskus, Keith E., and J. H. Reichman (eds.). International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime. 2005. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mazonde, Isaac N., and Pradip Thomas (eds.). Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Intellectual Property Rights in the Twenty-first Century: Perspectives from Southern Africa. 2007. Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa; Gaborone, Botswana: University of Botswana; London: World Association for Christian Communication.

Macmillan, Fiona (ed.). New Directions in Copyright Law. Volume 4. 2007. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Specifically these chapters: “Protection of traditional knowledge and culture – Copying right: cultural property and the limits of (Occidental) law.” Peter Fitzpatrick and Richard Joyce. “Copyright, corporate power and human rights – A contribution to a political economy of open source and free culture.” David M. Berry.

McAleer, Michael, and Les Oxley (eds.). Economic and Legal Issues in Intellectual Property. 2007. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. Specifically the chapter: “Indigenous knowledge and intellectual property : A sustainability agenda.” Dora Marinova and Margaret Raven.

McManis, Charles R. (ed.). Biodiversity and the Law: Intellectual Property, Biotechnology and Traditional Knowledge. 2007. London; Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

McManis, Charles R. “Introduction.” (Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Legal Protection of Traditional Knowledge) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy (2005) 17: 1–10. [Read it online]

———. “Conclusion: Answering the call; the Intellectual Property & Business Formation Legal Clinic at Washington University.” (Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Legal Protection of Traditional Knowledge) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy (2005) 17: 225–32. [Read it online]

———. “Intellectual property, genetic resources and traditional knowledge protection: Thinking globaly, acting locally.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 547–48.

Mgbeoji, Ikechi. Global Biopiracy: Patents, Plants and Indigenous Knowledge. 2006. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Misra, Kamal K. (ed.), and Kishor K. Basa (general ed.). Traditional Knowledge in Contemporary Societies: Challenges and Opportunities. 2007. Bhopal: Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya; Delhi: Pratibha Prabashan.

Mutter, K. “Traditional knowledge related to genetic resources and its intellectual property protection in Colombia.” European Intellectual Property Review (2005) 27(9): 327–33.

Nakata, Martin, et al. “Indigenous knowledge, the library and information service sector, and protocols.” Australian Academic & Research Libraries (2005) 36(2): 7–21.

Nijar, Gurdial Singh, and Azmi Sharom (eds.). Indigenous Peoples’ Knowledge Systems and Protecting Biodiversity. 2004. Kuala Lumpur: Advanced Professional Courses.

Noble, Brian. “Justice, transaction, translation: Blackfoot tipi transfers and WIPO’s search for the facts of traditional knowledge and exchange.” American Anthropologist (2007) 109(2): 338–49.

Nwabueze, Remigius N. “Ethnopharmacology, patents and the politics of plants’ genetic resources.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 585–632.

Oguamanam, Chidi. International Law and Indigenous Knowledge: Intellectual Property, Plant Biodiversity, and Traditional Medicine. 2006. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

———. “Localizing intellectual property in the globalization epoch: The integration of indigenous knowledge.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies (2004) 11(2): 135–69.

Ong, Burton (ed.). Intellectual Property and Biological Resources. 2004. Singapore; New York: Marshall Cavendish Academic. Specifically the chapter: “A brief review of legislation on access to genetic resources and the protection of traditional knowledge in selected megadiverse countries.” Michael I. Jeffery.

Overwalle, G, Van. “Protecting and sharing biodiversity and traditional knowledge: Holder and user tools.” Ecological Economics (2005) 53(4): 585–607.

Panizzon, Marion, and Thomas Cottier. “Developing countries interests and negotiation positions on protection of geographical indications and traditional knowledge,” in Baetens, Freya, and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (eds.). Reforming the World Trading System: Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance. 2005. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Paterson, Robert K. “Looking beyond intellectual property in resolving protection of the intangible cultural heritage of indigenous peoples.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 633–70.

Pearce, Fred. “Hero or zero?” (Talking point) (Biopiracy of knowledge of the medicinal properties of native people, Conrad Gorinsky’s research) (Interview) New Scientist (July 22, 2006) 191.2561: 50(2).

Perry, Richard Warren, and Bill Maurer (eds.). Globalization Under Construction: Governmentality, Law, and Identity. 2003. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Specifically the chapter: “Works in progress: traditional knowledge, biological diversity, and intellectual property in a neoliberal era.” Rosemary J. Coombe.

Phillips, V. J. “Half-human creatures, plants & indigenous peoples: Musings on ramifications of Western notions of intellectual property and the Newman-Rifkin attempt to patent a theoretical half-human creature.” Santa Clara Computer & High Technology Law Journal (2005) 21(2): 383–450.

Pinton, Florence. “Traditional knowledge and areas of biodiversity in Brazilian Amazonia.” (NGOs in the Governance of Biodiversity) (nongovernmental organizations) International Social Science Journal (2003) 178: 607–18.

Plahe, Jagjit Kaur, and Chris Nyland. “The WTO and patenting of life forms: Policy options for developing countries.” Third World Quarterly (2003) 24(1): 29–46.

Posey, Darrell Addison, and Plenderleith, Kristina (eds.). Indigenous Knowledge and Ethics: A Darrell Posey Reader. 2003. London: Routledge.

Prabhuji, S. K., G. P. Rao and S. K. Patil (eds.). Recent Advances in Medicinal Plants Research. 2005. New Delhi: Satish Serial Publishing House.

Rai, A. K. “The ends of intellectual property: Health as a case study.” Law & Contemporary Problems (2007) 70(2): 125–30. [Read it online]

Raju, C. B. (ed.). Intellectual Property Rights. 2007. New Delhi: Serials Publications. Specifically the chapter: “Protection of traditional knowledge: A cause for concern.” Savitha S.

Ramillano, Lore. “Providing protection for plant genetic resources: Patents, sui generis systems and biopartnerships.” (Book Review) Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy (2005) 8(2/3): 295–300.

Rao, Siriginidi Subba. “Indigenous knowledge organization: An Indian scenario.” International Journal of Information Management (2006) 26(3): 224–33.

Razzaque, J., et al. “Protection of traditional knowledge and human rights obligations: The status of discussion in international organisations.” Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights (2007) 25(3): 401–35.

Reddy, S. “Making heritage legible: Who owns traditional medical knowledge?” International Journal of Cultural Property (2006) 13(2): 161–88.

Richland, Justin B. “‘What are you going to do with the village’s knowledge?’: Talking tradition, talking law in Hopi tribal court.” Law & Society Review (2005) 39(2): 235–72.

Riley, Angela R. “Indigenous peoples and the promise of globalization: An essay on rights and responsibilities.” (2003 Tribal Law and Governance Conference) Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy (2004) 14(1): 155–67.

Riley, Mary (ed.). Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights: Legal Obstacles and Innovative Solutions. 2004. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Rohrmann, Carlos Alberto, and Lyssandro Norton Siqueira. “Patent protection and traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity.” International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (July 13, 2007) 1(4): 351.

Roue, Marie. “NGOs, indigenous peoples and local knowledge: Issues of power in the arena of biodiversity.” (Nongovernmental organizations) International Social Science Journal (2003) 178: 533–38.

Roussin, Lucille A. “Cultural heritage and identity.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 707–10.

Ruiz, Manuel, Isabel Lapena and Susanna E. Clark. “The protection of traditional knowledge in Peru: A comparative perspective.” Washington University Global Studies Law Review (2004) 3(3): 755–97. [Read it online]

Sackville, Ronald. “Legal protection of indigenous culture in Australia.” Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law (2003) 11(2): 711–45.

Sagar, R. “Intellectual property, benefit-sharing and traditional knowledge.” Journal of World Intellectual Property (2005) 8(3): 383–400.

Sand, Sabine. “Sui generis laws for the protection of indigenous expressions of culture and traditional knowledge.” University of Queensland Law Journal (2003) 22(2): 188–98.

Santamauro, J. “Reducing the rhetoric: Reconsidering the relationship of the TRIPS Agreement, CBD and proposed new patent disclosure requirements relating to genetic resources and traditional knowledge.” European Intellectual Property Review (2007) 29(3).

Sapp, H. A. “Monopolizing medicinal methods: The debate over patent rights for indigenous peoples.” Temple Journal of Science, Technology & Environmental Law (2006) 25(2): 191–212.

Schlais, Gregory K. “The patenting of sacred biological resources, the taro patent controversy in Hawai’i: A soft law proposal.” The University of Hawaii Law Review (2007) 29(2): 581–618.

Schuklenk, Udo, and Anita Kleinsmidt. “North-South benefit sharing arrangements in bioprospecting and genetic research: A critical ethical and legal analysis.” Developing World Bioethics (2006) 6(3): 122–134.

Secretariat of the Pacific Community and UNESCO. 2nd SPC/PIFS/Unesco Working Group for Legal Experts on the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Expressions of Culture (Noumea, New Caledonia, 29 September–1 October 2003). 2003. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

Serje, Margarita. “Malocas and barracones. Tradition, biodiversity, and participation in the Colombian Amazon.” (NGOs in the Governance of Biodiversity) International Social Science Journal (2003) 178: 561–72.

Sheridan, Cormac. “EPO neem patent revocation revives biopiracy debate.” Nature Biotechnology (2005) 23(5): 511–512.

Shoilev, K. “Intellectual property, biogenetic resources and traditional knowledge.” European Intellectual Property Review (2006) 28(4): 258–9.

Sillitoe, Paul (ed.). Local Science vs. Global Science: Approaches to Indigenous Knowledge in International Development. 2007. New York: Berghahn Books. Specifically the chapter: “Is Intellectual Property a Good Idea?” Charles Clift.

Simon, B. S. “Intellectual property and traditional knowledge: A psychological approach to conflicting claims of creativity in international law.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal (2005) 20(4): 1613–84.

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Indigendous/Traditional Knowledge & Intellectual Property PDF

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I. Introduction

1.1 What is the issue?

1.2 Politics and definitional problems

1.3 Who is involved?

II. Examples of Use and Misuse of Indigenous Knowledge

2.1 AVEDA and ownership of the word ‘Indigenous’

2.2 Registration of batik designs in Indonesia

2.3 Traditional knowledge and Bikram Yoga

2.4 Genetic information, databases of DNA and the Genographic Project

2.5 San/Hoodia case and access and benefit-sharing

2.6 The Bugis creation story and the theater production I La Galigo

2.7 Lego and the use of Maori names

III. Current Proposals: Dangers, Problems and Opportunities

3.1 Current proposals

3.2 Proposals that modify the current intellectual property framework

3.2.1 Labeling and/or trademarks

3.2.2 Moral rights

3.2.3 Confidential information

3.2.4 Performers’ rights

3.2.5 Limitations and exceptions to existing legislation

3.3 Proposals that utilize critical intellectual property discourse

3.3.1 Public domain

3.3.2 Creative Commons

3.4 Proposals that target private law solutions

3.4.1 Protocols

3.4.2 Knowledge registries and databases

3.4.3 Licenses and licensing

3.5 Combined Approach – Toolkits

3.6 Alternative regimes

3.6.1 Customary law

3.6.2 Sui generis legislation

3.6.3 Human rights, cultural rights, community rights?

3.6.4 An international treaty?

3.7 Other international treaties, conventions and instruments

3.7.1 Access and benefit-sharing scheme

3.7.2 The Agreement on the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS)

IV. Conclusion: Future Direction

4.1 Future directions

4.2 Indigenous peoples’ participation, collaboration and partnership

4.3 Next steps

V. Further Resources