Course Browser

Search and explore Duke Law's wide variety of courses that comprise near every area of legal theory and practice. Contact the Director of Academic Advising to confirm whether a course satisfies a graduation requirement in any particular semester. Course evaluations can be found here.
 

NOTE: Course offerings change. Faculty leaves and sabbaticals, as well as other curriculum considerations, will sometimes affect when a course may be offered.

 

Credits
Semester
JD Course of Study
JD/LLM in International & Comparative Law
JD/LLM in Law & Entrepreneurship
International LLM - 1 year
LLM in Law & Entrepreneurship - 1 year
Certificate in Public interest and Public Service Law
 
Clear all filters36 courses found.
Course Number Course Title Course Credits Degree Requirements Semesters Taught Methods of Evaluation

611AB

Readings 0.5
  • JD elective
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • PIPS elective
  1. Fall 17
  2. Spring 18
  3. Fall 18
  4. Spring 19
  5. Fall 19
  6. Spring 20

This year-long discussion course focuses on readings that explore connections between the law, the practice of law, the legal system and issues of current societal importance or interest.  Each of the course is expected to have a different specific focus and different readings.  This course is assessed on a credit/no credit basis.

613AB

Readings in Happiness & Decisionmaking 0.5
  • JD elective
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Fall 17
  2. Spring 18

This Readings seminar explores research on happiness and decision making, and the implications for legal systems, legal rules and life choices. Pursuing and maximizing happiness have long been prominent legal ideas, from Bentham and Jefferson to today. New research is generating direct measures of happiness (or subjective well-being) and comparisons across countries, demographic groups, activities, rules, choices, and different versions of happiness. A growing body of research in psychology, neuroscience, economics and law is investigating how people make decisions, and whether our decisions improve our happiness. In this Readings seminar, we will explore this research and its implications. Why are some societies and some individuals happier than others? What role for legal systems, lawyers, and our own choices? How well can people envision and pursue their own future happiness? What social cues and mental heuristics prompt us to make the choices we make? If we have difficulty making good choices, can the law help?

This is a yearlong course, with students receiving a total of 1 credit upon completion.  It is open to 12 students and meets for 7 sessions of 2 hours each, once per month, spread over the full academic year. For each session, we will read a book or a set of articles. Specific meeting dates and times will be arranged in consultation with the students.

617

Environmental Law Readings Workshop 0.5
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • IntlLLM Environ Cert
  1. Fall 19
  2. Spring 20
  3. Fall 17
  4. Spring 18
  5. Fall 18
  6. Spring 19

The Workshop introduces LLM students in the Certificate in Environmental Law program to core readings on different topics of environmental law. Students are assigned readings selected by the faculty members teaching environmental law. Each class meeting is conducted by a different member of the faculty in environmental law. Students will write a paper in reaction to the readings, and the course will be graded credit/no credit.
**This class is available only to International LLMs who are pursuing the Certificate in Environmental Law. **

NOTE: This course receives 0.50 credits a semester for a total of 1.0 credits for the year course.

800

Basics of Accounting 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students will learn the basic skills involved in commercial accounting: how to read a balance sheet, how to classify debts and assets, etc. The course will include budgeting and accounting exercises designed to simulate real business scenarios.

809

Litigation Strategy in the Corporate Context 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  1. Wintersession

Students will explore the role of the litigator in advising corporate colleagues and clients concerning the risks and benefits with pursuing a claim, including identifying the gateway and substantive issues, the most cost-effective approaches, and client business interests and goals. After reviewing a mock purchase agreement that ended in a dispute, students will be divided into two groups—one representing the buyer, the other the seller—and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of their respective clients’ positions and propose a strategy, including the likelihood of success and potential recovery, to “the client.”Students will explore the role of the litigator in advising corporate colleagues and clients concerning the risks and benefits with pursuing a claim, including identifying the gateway and substantive issues, the most cost-effective approaches, and client business interests and goals. After reviewing a mock purchase agreement that ended in a dispute, students will be divided into two groups—one representing the buyer, the other the seller—and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of their respective clients’ positions and propose a strategy, including the likelihood of success and potential recovery, to “the client.”

814

Basics for the Finance Lawyer 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will serve as a practical introduction to the practice of law and concepts related to a general commercial finance transaction.  Students will engage in an article-by-article review of a sample loan agreement and hypothetical proposed transaction, thereby becoming familiar with the underlying concepts, the relevant business considerations and the types/structure of relevant documents, the interplay of contract provisions across an entire deal, and the underlying legal framework.

815

Advising a Distressed Enterprise and Its Stakeholders 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will provide students with a practical understanding of the role of outside counsel to key stakeholders in complex, high-stakes, and fast-paced business reorganizations and liquidations – including distressed companies and their boards, secured and unsecured creditors, and distressed investors/asset purchasers.  Discussion topics include (i) advising the Board of Directors of a distressed company during periods of significant uncertainty and risk, including as to fiduciary responsibilities; (ii) out-of-court and in-court restructuring alternatives, techniques, and pitfalls; (iii) preparation, commencement, and administration of a case under chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code; (iv) “hot button” issues in chapter 11; and (v) cross-border restructurings.

816

Counseling & Creating a New Entity 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Meet your new client—StryveTek.  StryveTek is an innovative start-up looking to form a legal entity and get started pursuing the dreams of its founders.  They’ve come to you for help.  Where do you go from here?  Students in Counseling & Creating a New Entity will learn to counsel a new entity from the initial phone call to the preparation of organizational documents.  Discussion will cover the variety of legal entities available for business, social enterprise, and philanthropic purposes—corporations, LLCs, and nonprofit corporations—and the several legal disciplines involved in the formation of an entity (e.g., corporate, tax, and securities law).  Students will work with real document forms to learn how to get StryveTek up and running!

820

Deposition Practice 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students will learn the basic nuts and bolts of taking and defending depositions: how to prepare for a deposition, how to formulate effective questions, what objections to raise and when, how to handle difficult witnesses and counsel, etc.  Students will also learn how deposition strategy directly impacted the outcome of actual trials handled by Mr. Katz.  Active student participation is encouraged.

822

Hearings Practice 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students will consider strategies both for when to draft/offer motions in an ongoing litigation matter, and how best to draft and argue such motions in a hearing before a judge. During the course, students will participate in practical mock hearing exercises, with the opportunity for direct feedback on arguments and styles.

831

In House Legal Practice 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students in this course will (i) explore the role of in-house counsel as counsel and in-house counsel as a member of a larger commercial organization (publicly-traded company, large division of a publicly-traded company, large family-owned private company), (ii) gain an understanding of the skills that make counsel, but especially in-house counsel, effective, and (iii) apply these skills during a team assignment which will result in a presentation to “the client.” The focus of the course will be almost exclusively on the effective delivery of situation-relevant legal guidance within an organization versus examining the intricacies of a specific area of law. In the process students will be exposed to issues commonly encountered by in-house counsel, from determining who the client is to the organizational dynamics of providing legal guidance.

832

Internal Investigations 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

In the modern corporate world, the discovery of potential criminal misconduct generates a whirlwind of activity and grave risk to the company and its senior management. This can begin with the decision whether to make a voluntary disclosure to the Justice Department, followed in many instances by an internal corporate investigation by outside counsel. The internal investigation may be followed by, or even conducted in parallel with, a federal grand jury investigation which presents an even more serious threat. This course presents the legal, ethical, and practical problems facing counsel who represent corporations in the conduct of internal investigations and the defense of federal criminal investigations.

837

Legal and Policy Aspects of U.S. Civil-Military Relations 0.5
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • PIPS elective
  1. Wintersession

The seminar will address the Constitutional and statutory structure of U.S. civil-military relations, as well as contemporary issues relating to the role of the armed forces in policy debates, politics, and social issues.  In addition, it will examine case studies that illustrate the tensions that can arise between the armed forces and the civilian leadership in a variety of circumstances.  Methodologies and approaches for ensuring productive civil-military relations will also be discussed.

844

The Counselor and the Client: The Corporate Context 0.5
  1. Wintersession

This six-hour course, taught over three sessions, is designed to introduce first-year JD students to the commercial, regulatory and institutional environment of contemporary business transactions, and the role of attorneys in advising and facilitating those transactions. Students will gain an understanding of the mechanisms, processes and personalities that accompany everyday commercial transactions and will be acquainted with the vocabulary used in business and other organizations. The purpose of the course is to provide a greater understanding of the business context in which lawyers function.  The course is intended for all students whatever their ultimate focus and is not designed particularly for students who intend to practice corporate law.

846

Compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will explore some of the main legal and practical issues surrounding compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). Drawing on recent judicial decisions, Deferred Prosecution Agreements, and the DOJ’s and SEC’s Resource Guide, students will explore topics that include: Who is a “foreign official;” what is “corrupt intent;” what constitutes a “reasonable and a bon fide expense;” when does the exception for facilitation payments apply; and what is the knowledge requirement for third parties.  The course will offer practice-oriented exercises to introduce the nuts and bolts of FPCA compliance practice, including on conducting due diligence and performing risks assessments. Students will also discuss when to voluntarily disclose a potential wrongdoing, when to turn to outside counsel for third-party evaluation and when to keep investigations internal.

848

Insurance Law 0.5
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students will become familiar with basic issues and concepts of insurance and insurance coverage.  Insurance is a trillion dollar per year industry and impacts in numerous ways on a broad range of commercial and litigation practices.  Assignments and practical discussion items will include key concepts in identifying relevant insurance, understanding insurance policies and the role of insurance in litigation and key areas of commercial transactions such as tax and the interplay of warranties, indemnities and insurance in M&A transactions.

850

Client Representation: An Immigration Case Study 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will provide students with a concise, practical walk-through of how to represent a client seeking asylum in the United States in the different stages of the U.S. immigration process.  More than 400,000 cases are currently pending in Immigration Courts around the country, all of which could be appealed to the Board of Immigration Appeals and then a U.S. Court of Appeal; many present issues of asylum and protection under the Convention Against Torture.  In a simulation of an actual case, including developing strategy, preparing and examining witnesses, and presenting arguments, students will be assigned roles as counsel for the refugee client; as counsel for the government; as witnesses; or as either an immigration judge or appellate judge.

853

The Way It All Works: Investing, Negotiating, and Operating in the Real World 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Taught from the perspective of a private equity investor, CEO, and law school graduate, this course will provide students the “big picture” of how the universe of pension funds, endowments, limited partners, general partners, and other investors is interwoven, how money is organized, and how lawyers, accountants, and other consultants and advisors fit into the process of raising capital, selling a company, and conducting due diligence.  Students will explore concepts such as valuation (assets vs. enterprise valuation), EBITDA, allocation of risk, hurdle rates, basic financial statement analysis, and other investment-related topics, with a focus on real-world insights into how these principles work in practice.  Through a simulated deal, students will determine the price they want to pay for a hypothetical company and how best to quarterback the documentation to ensure the contract reflects the negotiated value.

855

Data Breach Response and Cybersecurity Due Diligence 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course teaches students how to manage successfully the critical workflow of a data breach response and a cybersecurity due diligence effort, rapidly becoming a critical factor of the decision-making calculus for a corporation contemplating a merger, acquisition, asset purchase, or other business combination; an organization taking on a new vendor, partner, or other alliance; or a private equity firm purchasing a new portfolio company.  The attorney’s role during any due diligence process is key, especially during cybersecurity due diligence, when any problem can put a transaction at risk.

856

Investor-State Relations: An Arbitration Case Study 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will introduce students to current controversies in international commercial and investment-treaty arbitration. Students will develop advocacy skills used by practitioners to resolve international disputes--and to shape the future of these global institutions.

857

Government Lawyering in Crisis 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will examine the role of lawyers in the government, especially in time of crisis, the skills developed, and the usefulness of those skills for a lawyer who later enters the private sector. We will focus on the work of the White House Counsel, the US Department of Justice, other Executive Branch counsel, Congressional lawyers, and the role of private sector lawyers. We will study the interaction of law, policy, and politics in a government job, including topics such as attorney-client privilege, executive privilege, ethics, the role of the media, and “the people’s right to know.” Students will engage in case studies based upon a hypothetical government crisis, and learn through class discussion and practical exercises how lawyers inform government decision-making, and what skill sets are required in dealing with a crisis. We will also discuss the transferability of those lawyering skills to counseling clients in the private sector.

858

Obtaining and Disclosing Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

In today’s digital environment, the collection of electronic data has become one of the principal evidence collection tools used by law enforcement. Prosecutors and investigating agents rely heavily on assistance from corporations, particularly in the technology sector, to identify and gather electronic evidence. The sheer volume of data and law enforcement requests places burdens on companies as they seek to comply with law enforcement while protecting their business interests and the rights of their consumers. These burdens are compounded by the fact that applicable statutes have not kept pace with technology. This course will provide students with an overview of electronic evidence collection and allow them to work through some of the contemporary challenges facing both prosecutors and corporate counsel.

859

Current Problems in Antitrust Litigation 0.5
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • IntlLLM Business Cert
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  1. Wintersession

This course will explore, and bring together, several strands of reasoning in antitrust law and litigation: First, students will examine how antitrust law relies on broad principles whose formulation and maturation is developed inductively through common law techniques. Put more simply, antitrust doctrine is made through specific cases, i.e., the law comes litigation, it is not made by Congress or an agency promulgating regulations.  Second, students will appreciate antitrust law’s elasticity which balances broad principles being applied to different industries whose economics may be very different. Third, students will understand why some of the greatest lawyers in the last century—Louis Brandeis (a famous antitrust plaintiffs’ lawyer), David Boies, John Paul Stevens, Patrick Lynch, and others—were antitrust lawyers:  their abilities combined legal and factual rigor with creativity.  Students will explore these strands by discussing five “problems” in antitrust litigation:  (1) class certification (including the critical concepts of proving “classide” impact with “common” proof under Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(3)); (2) making economic testimony understandable and persuasive; (3) antitrust in an era of standard essential patents (how do we apply antitrust principles to standard setting?); (4) the Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements Act and Extraterritoriality; and (5) “Neo-Brandeisian”, a/k/a ‘hipster’ antitrust: Facebook, Google, Amazon and Apple.

860

Advising Clients on Use of Trademarks and Copyrighted Material 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will focus on the practical application of trademark and copyright law. Using examples from actual disputes, we will discuss how to advise clients who present with questions about whether they can use a particular trademark or copyrighted work. The first phase of this course will focus on trademark and specifically likelihood of confusion and infringement analysis. After a brief overview of trademark law, we will divide into groups to discuss various real-life trademark disputes and develop a plan of advice and strategy for the client in those particular scenarios. The second phase of the course will focus on fair use in copyright infringement. Similar to trademark, we will start with a short introduction to copyright and the fair use analysis, followed by group break-out discussions about certain real world examples and whether the proposed use is a fair use.

862

All About The Benefits: An Introduction to ERISA and Employee Benefits 0.5
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Employee benefits (e.g., pension, health & welfare, and disability plans) are significant balance sheet issues for companies and governments alike. This course will provide an introduction to the broad and deep federal statute that governs such issues (ERISA) and explore recent significant events in the field, such as the City of Detroit bankruptcy, the impact of the legalization of same-sex marriage on benefit plans, and pension de-risking transactions.

863

Life or Death: The Decision-Making Process in a Death Penalty Case 0.5
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students will follow how a major state attorney’s office handled death penalty eligible cases from the initial crime scene visit through the conclusion of the case. The course will use a specific case study – the 2009 Thanksgiving Day murders of four family members in Jupiter, Florida – to examine how charging decisions were made, including the legal criteria and other case-related issues. One of the exercises may include having students conduct a mock capital case review in a homicide case. The course also will discuss legislative and executive actions that influence how a prosecutor makes the decision to charge and/or resolve a capital case (including, as an example, the current and very public conflict between the Florida Governor and the State Attorney for the Ninth Circuit in Florida). Finally, the course examines the evolving law relating to jury and judicial decision-making in death penalty cases.

864

Lawyer as International Development Professional 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will examine what it means to be a government lawyer working in international development, and provide a practical introduction to the role of attorneys in US development policy and programming. Students will gain an understanding of the global development ecosystem as well as explore specific issues of interest to US governmental actors through presentations, group exercises, and simulations.

865

Designing Creative Legal Solutions 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Can the law of tomorrow be better than the law of today? Good lawyers help their clients navigate risk. Great lawyers are creative problem solvers who tackle increasingly complex challenges faced by their clients and their communities. In this course, we’ll attack seemingly intractable legal problems to develop real, creative solutions. We are partnering with other law schools to tackle the issue of human trafficking, which we’ll explore from various stakeholder perspectives. We’ll build upon the design approach of IDEO, a global innovation firm committed to creating disproportionate impact through design, and—along with various community stakeholders—apply their basic approach to pressing legal challenges. Our goals will be to walk away with templates for real creative solutions for our community and real creative mindsets for ourselves.

866

Legal Issues in Media: Case Studies in News and Documentary Production 0.5
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will introduce students to the wide range of legal issues handled by media lawyers, using two different models: the making of a documentary film (i.e., a long term project), and production of a nightly news show (a more fast-paced, deadline-driven endeavor). Students will learn basic principles and how to avoid common pitfalls. The course will also examine the risk management role of in-house counsel when dealing with grey areas.

867

Leadership and Communication in the Law 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  1. Wintersession

The practice of law functions through teamwork. To be successful and effective in this environment, a lawyer must be able to communicate, collaborate, and lead within her organization. Her success depends on the willingness of others to work with her, work for her, and mentor her. This course recognizes the importance of these internal relationships and aims to prepare students for the communication, teamwork, and leadership required of young practitioners. Through a combination of theory, case studies, and group exercises, students in this course will begin to develop (1) an understanding of their own communication and leadership styles and skills; (2) an understanding of the communication and leadership styles of others; (3) skills to identify how and when to manage up, manage down, and collaborate within a team; (4) skills to effectively manage and work with teams; and (5) best practices for navigating difficult conversations and team dynamics.

868

Commercial Real Estate Transactions and Litigation: A Primer 0.5
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  1. Wintersession

Commercial real estate transactions and the litigation they spawn have historically been strong indicators of existing and future market performance.  Whether practicing in the depths of an economic recession or advising clients at the peak of a market cycle, successful real estate attorneys must be adept not only at recognizing legal issues, but also at identifying key business concerns and the related pitfalls their clients are likely to face.  This course will introduce students to the core types of real estate transactions practicing attorneys are likely to encounter, with a particular focus on how certain issues and relationships common in real estate transactions often lead to disputes and litigation.  Real world case studies, as well as select break-out discussion sessions, will be utilized to identify and reinforce key business considerations and transactional/litigation strategy.

869

Negotiating Domestic Violence Policies and Gender Inequality Reform in Professional Sports 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  • IntllLLM IP Cert
  1. Wintersession

This course will provide students with the opportunity to study two critical issues facing professional sports leagues and sports governing bodies: (i) inadequate domestic violence policies and (ii) gender inequality in respect of pay, working conditions and employment opportunities (i.e., coaching, scouting, league front office employment and team front office employment).  At the conclusion of the first class, students will participate in a mock collective bargaining session, where they will negotiate domestic violence policies that improve upon the current policies in effect today. The second class will build upon the first, by having students examine barriers women have faced in the sports industry in terms of employment opportunities, adverse working conditions and pay parity with men. After doing a case study on the NFL and its sponsors’ diversity and inclusion efforts, students divide into teams to provide recommendations for improvement among different sports.

870

Artificial Intelligence: Navigating the Evolving Legal Landscape to Capitalize on Opportunities and Mitigate Risk 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will focus on the many emerging legal issues arising in connection with artificial intelligence (AI), including with respect to AI ethics/trustworthiness, intellectual property and data.  In addition to discussing the state of the law and the ongoing policy debates, students will consider strategies that stakeholders may employ to mitigate risk while still enabling society to benefit from the opportunities presented by the technology. Tuesday and Wednesday, 2-5 pm, enrollment of 30 students

871

Professional Communication for Lawyers 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

Students will discuss and practice different types of communication used in legal practice including 1) letter writing 2) e-mails 3) phone calls and 4) in-person meetings.  The course will explore how to determine the appropriate mode of communication and how to improve your skills.

872

CFIUS and Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions 0.5
  • JD experiential
  • IntlLLM/SJD/EXC elective
  1. Wintersession

This course will examine, from a practitioner’s perspective, the evolving history of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), and its functions, procedures, and expanded jurisdictions under the new FIRRMA legislation. For cross-border M&A attorneys, CFIUS has posed new challenges at the deal-structuring stage. Students will examine a few recent CFIUS cases involving buyers from Asia, and how deal lawyers can add “value” to the deal-making process by helping their clients navigate the CFIUS regime. The course will conclude with a few open-ended questions surrounding the constitutionality of the CFIUS regime and the justification of its extra-territoriality.

873

Prosecutorial Ethics 0.5
  • JD experiential
  1. Wintersession

Justice Robert Jackson once observed that “[t]he prosecutor has more control over life, liberty, and reputation than any other person in America.” This course will examine the ethical obligations that accompany that influence. We will consider the prosecutor’s broad discretion at each stage of the criminal process, from the initiation of an investigation through trial and sentencing. We will examine the kinds of decisions that can lead to misconduct and consider how such misconduct might be remedied or deterred. We will also consider to what extent a prosecutor’s decisions are influenced by the interests of other parties (e.g., victims, investigating agents, the public) and what it means for a prosecutor to “seek justice.” Real-world case studies and simulations will be employed.