Gratz v. Bollinger
Gratz, an applicant who was denied undergraduate admission to the University of Michigan, sued on the grounds that the school’s consideration of race and ethnicity in its undergraduate admissions decisions violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The district court found for Gratz. The Supreme Court granted certiorari before the Sixth Circuit decided the appeal.
Does the University of Michigan’s use of racial preferences in undergraduate admissions violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. § 2000d), or 42 U.S.C. § 1981?