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Table of Contents

Introduction
Chapter One: The Theories Behind Intellectual Property
Chapter Two: Intellectual Property & the Constitution
Chapter Three: Intellectual Property & the First Amendment
Chapter Four: Trademark: Introduction
Chapter Five: Subject Matter: Requirements for Trademark Protection
Chapter Six: Grounds for Refusing Registration
Chapter Seven: Trademark Infringement
Chapter Eight: Defense to Trademark Infringement: Fair & Nominative Use
Chapter Nine: False Advertising, Dilution & 'Cyberpiracy'
Chapter Ten: Introduction to Copyright: Theory & History
Chapter Eleven: Copyrightable Subject Matter
Chapter Twelve: Copyright's "Reach": Infringement
Chapter Thirteen: Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair Use
Chapter Fourteen: Secondary Liability for Copyright Infringement & Safe Harbors in the Digital Age
Chapter Fifteen: Anti-Circumvention: A New Statutory Scheme
Chapter Sixteen: Copyright & State Misappropriation Law: Preemption
Chapter Seventeen: Patents: Hopes, Fears, History & Doctrine
Chapter Eighteen: Patentable Subject Matter
Chapter Nineteen: Requirements for Patent Protection: Utility
Chapter Twenty: Requirements for Patent Protection: Novelty
Chapter Twenty-One: Non-Obviousness
Chapter Twenty-Two: Trade Secrecy & Preemption
Chapter Twenty-Three: A Creative Commons? Summary and Conclusion

 

DETAILED CONTENTS

Introduction

Chart: Comparison of the Three Main Forms of Federal Intellectual Property
Basic Themes: Three Public Goods, Six Perspectives
An Open Course Book?
Structure and Organization

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Chapter One
The Theories Behind Intellectual Property

Problem 1-1: Framing
James Boyle, The Apple of Forbidden Knowledge
Thomas Hazlett, Code Breakers
Problem 1-2: Justifying and Limiting
John Locke, Of Property, from Two Treatises on Government
James Boyle, “Why Intellectual Property,” from The Public Domain
John Perry Barlow, Selling Wine Without Bottles: The Economy of Mind on the Global Net
International News Service v. The Associated Press, 248 U.S. 215 (1918)
The New York Times, “News Pirating Case in Supreme Court”
James Boyle, “Thomas Jefferson Writes a Letter,” from The Public Domain

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Chapter Two
Intellectual Property & the Constitution

U.S. Constitution, Art. I, § 8, cl. 8
Introduction
Problem 2-1: Constitutional Interpretation
1.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Originality
The Trade-Mark Cases, 100 U.S. 82 (1879)
Feist v. Rural Telephone Service, 499 U.S. 340 (1991)
   (The full version of the case is on page 303)
2.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Purpose and Novelty/Non-Obviousness
Graham v. John Deere Co., 383 U.S. 1 (1966)
   (The full version of the case is on page 744)
3.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Fixation & the Interaction between Clauses
Problem 2-2: Constitutional Interpretation
U.S. v. Moghadam, 175 F.3d 1269 (11th Cir. 1999)
U.S. v. Martignon, 492 F.3d 140 (2d Cir. 2007)
4.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Limited Times, Term Extension and the First Amendment
Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003)
Golan v. Holder, 132 S.Ct. 873 (2012)
Problem 2-3: Term Limits

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Chapter Three
Intellectual Property & the First Amendment

San Francisco Arts & Athletics v. U.S. Olympic Committee, 483 U.S. 522 (1987)
Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989)
H.R. 2723: A Copyright in the Flag of the United States
Problem 3-1: Intellectual Property and the First Amendment
Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders v. Pussycat Cinema, 604 F.2d 200 (2d Cir. 1979)
L.L. Bean, Inc. v. Drake Publishers, Inc., 811 F.2d 26 (1st Cir. 1987)
Problem 3-2: Constitutional Interpretation: Review

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Chapter Four
Trademark: Introduction

Felix Cohen, Transcendental Nonsense and the Functional Approach, excerpt
Trademark Basics
What are the sources of trademark law?
Registered Marks
Notes: Use-based and Intent-To-Use Applications
Notes: International Trademark Protection
Problem 4-1

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Chapter Five
Subject Matter: Requirements for Trademark Protection

1.) Use as a Mark in Commerce
Use in Commerce
Use in Commerce: Free and Open Source Software
Planetary Motion, Inc. v. Techsplosion, Inc., 261 F.3d 1188 (11th Cir. 2001)
2.) Use as a Mark: Source Identification Function
  a.) Actions of the Source
  MicroStrategy, Inc. v. Motorola, Inc., 345 F.3d 335 (4th Cir. 2001)
  b.) Nature of the Mark: Distinctiveness and Functionality
  Abercrombie & Fitch Co. v. Hunting World, Inc., 537 F.2d 4 (2d Cir. 1976)
  Zatarain’s, Inc. v. Oak Grove Smokehouse, Inc., 698 F.2d 786 (5th Cir. 1983)
  The “Spectrum of Distinctiveness”
  Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co., Inc., 514 U.S. 159 (1995)
  Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Samara Brothers, Inc., 529 U.S. 205 (2000)
  Jessica Litman, “The Exclusive Right to Read,” 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 29 (1994)
  TrafFix Devices, Inc. v. Marketing Displays, Inc., 532 U.S. 23 (2001)
Problems 5-1–5-4

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Chapter Six
Grounds for Refusing Registration

1.) 1052(a)
  i.) Disparaging marks
  Pro-Football, Inc. v. Blackhorse, 112 F. Supp. 3d 439 (E.D. Va. 2016)
  In re Tam, 808 F.3d 1321 (Fed. Cir. 2016)
  Problem 6-1
  ii.) Marks that falsely suggest a connection to persons
  iii.) Immoral or scandalous marks
  In re Marsha Fox, 702 F.3d 633 (Fed. Cir. 2012)
  In re Hershey, 6 U.S.P.Q.2d 1470 (T.T.A.B. 1988)
  Problem 6-2
  iv.) Deceptive marks
2.) 1052(b)
3.) 1052(c)
4.) 1052(d)
5.) 1052(e)
  i.) § 1052(e) “desceptively misdescriptive” v. § 1052(a) “deceptive”
  ii.) Primarily geographically descriptive, or geographically decep-tively misdescriptive
  iii.) Primarily merely a surname
6.) 1052(f)
Problem 6-3

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Chapter Seven
Trademark Infringement

1.) Use in Commerce
Rescuecom Corp. v. Google, Inc., 562 F.3d 123 (2d Cir. 2009)
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals v. Doughney, 263 F.3d 359 (4th Cir. 2001)
2.) Likelihood of Confusion
Lois Sportswear, U.S.A., Inc. v. Levi Strauss & Co., 799 F.2d 867 (2d Cir. 1986)
3.) Contributory Infringement
Tiffany Inc. v. eBay Inc., 600 F.3d 93 (2d Cir. 2010)
Problem 7-1

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Chapter Eight
Defense to Trademark Infringement: Fair & Nominative Use

KP Permanent Make-Up, Inc. v. Lasting Impression I, Inc., et al., 543 U.S. 111 (2004)
New Kids on the Block v. New America Pub., Inc., 971 F.2d 302 (9th Cir. 1992)
Mattel Inc. v. Walking Mountain Productions, 353 F.3d 792 (9th Cir. 2003)
Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles, 279 F.3d 796 (9th Cir. 2002)
Notes: Background on Search Technology

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Chapter Nine
False Advertising, Dilution & 'Cyberpiracy'

1.) False Advertising: False or Misleading Statements of Fact
Avon Products, Inc. v. SC Johnson & Son, Inc., 984 F.Supp. 768 (S.D.N.Y. 1997)
POM Wonderful, LLC v. The Coca-Cola Co., 134 S.Ct. 2228 (2014)
2.) Dilution
  a.) The Requirement that the Mark be Famous
  Coach Services, Inc. v. Triumph Learning LLC, 668 F.3d 1356 (Fed. Cir. 2012)
  b.) The Requirement of “Commercial Speech”; Dilution by Tarnish-ment
  Smith v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 537 F.Supp.2d 1302 (N.D. Ga. 2008)
  c.) Dilution by Blurring
  Starbucks Corp. v. Wolfe’s Borough Coffee, Inc., 588 F.3d 97 (2d Cir. 2009)
  Problem 9-1: Dilution of (by) Alcohol
3.)  “Cybersquatting” and “Cyberpiracy”
  Problem 9-2
  Lamparello v. Falwell, 420 F.3d 309 (4th Cir. 2005)
  Problem 9-3

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Chapter Ten
Introduction to Copyright: Theory & History

James Boyle, Shamans, Software and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society (Harvard Univ. Press 1997), excerpt
Three Views of Copyright (and the droits d’auteur)
Thomas Babington Macaulay, First Speech to the House of Commons on Copyright
Victor Hugo, Speech to the Congress of Literary, Industrial and Artistic Property
Samuel Clemens [Mark Twain], Statement before the Committee of Patents of the Senate and House to discuss amending the Copyright Act
Jennifer Jenkins, In Ambiguous Battle: The Promise (and Pathos) of Public Domain Day, 2014, 12 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 1 (Dec. 31, 2013), excerpt
Copyright’s History
  The 1976 Copyright Act
  Copyright Expansions and Policy
  Copyright Office

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Chapter Eleven
Copyrightable Subject Matter

Copyrightable Subject Matter
1.) Originality: Independent Creation and a Modicum of Creativity
Feist v. Rural Telephone Service, 499 U.S. 340 (1991)
Matthew Bender & Co., Inc. v. West Publishing Co., 158 F.3d 674 (2d Cir. 1998)
Matthew Bender & Co., Inc. v. West Publishing Co., 158 F.3d 693 (2d Cir. 1998)
James Boyle, A Natural Experiment, Financial Times, Nov. 22, 2004
Problem 11-1
2.) The Idea-Expression Distinction
Baker v. Selden, 101 U.S. 99 (1880)
3.) Merger of Idea and Expression
Herbert Rosenthal Jewelry Corp. v. Kalpakian, 446 F.2d 738 (9th Cir. 1971)
Morrissey v. Proctor & Gamble Co., 379 F.2d 675 (1st Cir. 1967)
Kregos v. Associated Press, 937 F.2d 700 (2d Cir. 1991)
Problem 11-2
4.) Useful Articles
Brandir Intern’l, Inc. v. Cascade Pacific Lumber Co., 834 F.2d 1142 (2d Cir. 1987)
5.) Methods of Operation: Introduction to Computer Software
Lotus Development Corp. v. Borland Intern’l, Inc., 49 F.3d 807 (1st Cir. 1995)
Lotus Development Corp. v. Borland Intern’l, Inc., 516 U.S. 233 (1996)
Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., 872 F.Supp.2d 974 (N.D. Cal. 2012)
Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., 750 F.3d 1339 (Fed. Cir. 2014)
Problem 11-3
6.) Fixation (Copyright Meets Software, continued)
MAI Systems Corp. v. Peak Computer, Inc., 991 F.2d 511 (9th Cir. 1993)
Religious Technology Center v. Netcom, 907 F.Supp. 1361 (N.D. Cal. 1995)
James Boyle, “The Internet Threat,” from The Public Domain

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Chapter Twelve
Copyright's "Reach": Infringement

Introduction
Problem 12-1
Exclusive Rights
  a.) The Idea/Expression Distinction in Infringement Analysis
  Nichols v. Universal Pictures Corp. et al., 45 F.2d 119 (2d Cir. 1930)
  b.) Copyright Meets Computer Software: The Infringement Edi-tion
  James Boyle, “A Machine that Contains All Other Machines,” from The Public Domain
  Computer Associates v. Altai, Inc., 923 F.2d 693 (2d Cir. 1992)
  c.) Copyright in Characters
  Anderson v. Stallone, 11 U.S.P.Q.2d. 1161 (C.D. Cal. 1989)
  d.) A Two-Part Test for Copyright Infringement
  Arnstein v. Porter, 154 F.2d 464 (2d Cir. 1946)
  Dawson v. Hinshaw Music, 905 F.2d 731 (4th Cir. 1990)
  e.) “De minimis” Copying
  Newton v. Diamond, 388 F.3d 1189 (9th Cir. 2004)

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Chapter Thirteen
Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair Use

Section 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Problem 13-1
1.) Fair Use, Technology and Contributory Infringement
Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984)
James Boyle, The Public Domain (excerpt)
2.) Unpublished works, “Scoops” and Political Speech
Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises, 471 U.S. 539 (1985)
3.) Transformative Use, Parody, Commentary and Burdens of Proof Revisited
Campbell v. Acuff-Rose, 510 U.S. 569 (1994)
SunTrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co., 268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001)
Problem 13-2
4.) Fair Use Meets Technology
Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade, Inc., 977 F.2d 1510 (9th Cir. 1992)
Problem 13-3
Perfect 10 v. Google, 508 F.3d 1146 (9th Cir. 2007)
Authors Guild, Inc. v. Google Inc., 954 F.Supp.2d 282 (S.D.N.Y. 2013)
Notes on Authors Guild v. Google and Cariou v. Prince
5.) A Fair Use Case-Study: Multiple Copies for Classroom Use
Princeton Univ. Press v. Mich. Document Serv., Inc., 74 F.3d 1512 (6th Cir. 1996)
Princeton Univ. Press v. Mich. Document Serv., Inc., 99 F.3d 1381 (6th Cir. 1996 en banc)
Problem 13-4
Conclusion

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Chapter Fourteen
Secondary Liability for Copyright Infringement & Safe Harbors in the Digital Age

Introduction
Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984)
   (The full version of the case is on page 427)
Problem 14-1: The Napster Case
1.) The Stakes of Contributory Infringement
2.) Contributory and Vicarious Infringement
A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
3.) Inducement Liability
MGM Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 (2005)
Problem 14-2
4.) Safe Harbors: Section 512, Direct Infringement and Secondary Liability
Title II: Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation, U.S. Copyright Office Sum-mary
Problem 14-3
Viacom International, Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., 676 F.3d 19 (2d Cir. 2012)

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Chapter Fifteen
Anti-Circumvention: A New Statutory Scheme

Introduction
James Boyle, The Public Domain (excerpt)
1.) Anti-Circumvention, Fair Use, and the First Amendment
Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001)
2.) Anti-Circumvention, Competition, and Consumer Choice
Chamberlain v. Skylink, 381 F.3d 1178 (Fed. Cir. 2004)
Problem 15-1
3.) The Interaction between Copyright, Contracts, and the DMCA
MDY Industries, LLC v. Blizzard Entertainment, Inc., 629 F.3d 928 (9th Cir. 2010)
Problem 15-2

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Chapter Sixteen
Copyright & State Misappropriation Law: Preemption

U.S. Constitution, Article 6, Clause 2
Introduction
Section 301.—Preemption with respect to other laws
Problem 16-1: Framing and Preemption
International News Service v. The Associated Press, 28 U.S. 215 (1918)
   (The full version of the case is on page 25)
1.) Subject Matter and General Scope: Extra Elements
National Basketball Assoc. v. Motorola, Inc., 105 F.3d 841 (2d Cir. 1997)
2.) Preemption, Misappropriation & the Fact/Expression Dichotomy
Barclays Capital Inc. v. Theflyonthewall.com, Inc., 650 F.3d 876 (2d Cir. 2011)

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Chapter Seventeen
Patents: Hopes, Fears, History & Doctrine

1.) Hopes and Fears
2.) History
3.) Patent Basics
  a.) The America Invents Act
  b.) The PTO Application Process
  c.) Reading a Sample Patent
  d.) International Patent Law
  e.) Design Patents and Infringement

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Chapter Eighteen
Patentable Subject Matter

Section 101
1.) Laws of Nature and Natural Phenomena
Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980)
James Boyle, Endowed by Their Creator?: The Future of Constitutional Personhood (2011)
Mayo Collaborative v. Prometheus Labs, 132 S.Ct. 1289 (2012)
Ass’n for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., 133 S.Ct. 2107 (2013)
2.) Abstract Ideas, Business Methods and Computer Programs
James Boyle, The Public Domain (excerpt)
Bilski v. Kappos, 561 U.S. 593 (2010)
Problem 18-1
Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank Intern’l, 134 S.Ct. 2347 (2014)
Problem 18-2

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Chapter Nineteen
Requirements for Patent Protection: Utility

1.) ‘Research Intermediaries’ and Hunting Licenses
Brenner v. Manson, 383 U.S. 519 (1966)
2.) Genetic Engineering & Utility
USPTO Utility Examination Guidelines
3.) Utility in the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
In re Fisher, 421 F.3d 1365 (Fed. Cir. 2005)
Problem 19-1

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Chapter Twenty
Requirements for Patent Protection: Novelty

35 U.S.C. 102 Conditions for patentability; novelty
Introduction
1.) Novelty: Basics
Gayler v. Wilder, 51 U.S. 477 (1850)
2.) Novelty: Novel to whom?
3.) Novelty: Anticipation of Every Element
Coffin v. Ogden, 85 U.S. 120 (1873)
Verdegaal Brothers, Inc. v. Union Oil Co. of Calif., 814 F.2d 628 (Fed. Cir. 1987)
4.) Novelty: Inherency
In re Cruciferous Sprout Litigation, 301 F.3d 1343 (Fed. Cir. 2002)
5.) Statutory Bar: Public Use
Pennock v. Dialogue, 27 U.S. 1 (1829)
6.) Statutory Bar: The Experimental Use Exception
City of Elizabeth v. Pavement Co., 97 U.S. 126 (1877)
Problem 20-1

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Chapter Twenty-One
Non-Obviosness

Introduction
Graham v. John Deere Co., 383 U.S. 1 (1966)
1.) A Four Step Test for Obviousness
Stratoflex, Inc. v. Aeroquip Corp., 713 F.2d 1530 (Fed. Cir. 1983)
2.) The Scope of Prior Art
In re Carl D. Clay, 966 F.2d 656 (Fed. Cir. 1992)
3.) Burden of Proof and “Obvious to Try”
In re Bell, 991 F.2d 781 (Fed. Cir. 1993)
4.) ‘These Are Not the PHOSITA’s you’ve been looking for. . . .’
Kimberly-Clark v. Johnson & Johnson, 745 F.2d 1437 (Fed. Cir. 1984)
Dan L. Burk and Mark A. Lemley, Is Patent Law Technology-Specific? 17 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1155 (2002)
Problem 21-1

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Chapter Twenty-Two
Trade Secrecy & Preemption

Introduction
The Restatement, Uniform Trade Secrets Act, and Defend Trade Secrets Act
Restatement (First) of Torts, Section 757 (1939)
Uniform Trade Secrets Act (with 1985 Amendments)
Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016
Preemption
Sears, Roebuck & Co. v. Stiffel Co., 376 U.S. 225 (1964)
Kewanee Oil Co. v. Bicron Corp., 416 U.S. 470 (1974)
Bonito Boats, Inc. v. Thunder Craft Boats, Inc., 489 U.S. 141 (1989)
Improper Means
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. v. Christopher, 431 F.2d 1012 (5th Cir. 1970)
Reasonable Efforts to Preserve Secrecy
Rockwell Graphic Systems, Inc. v. DEV Industries, Inc., 925 F.2d 174 (7th Cir. 1991)
“Are Trade Secrets ‘Property’?” Why Do You Ask, Pray Tell?
E.I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Co. et al. v. Masland et al., 244 U.S. 100 (1917)
Ruckelshaus v. Monsanto Co., 467 U.S. 986 (1984)
Problem 22-1: Trade Secrets, Misappropriation & Preemption

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Chapter Twenty-Three
A Creative Commons? Summary and Conclusion

James Boyle, “A Creative Commons,” from The Public Domain

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